Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Aristotle and Plato Essay

One of the greatest philosophers of all time was a man named Aristotle, the ancient greek philosopher. He was practically influenced every area of conceptual modern thinking. His mind set was in terms of materialism, which he essentially viewed substance on Earth before ideas and qualities. He genuinely believed in the notion of analyzing compounds and characteristics of people and their actions. Aristotle, who was a student of Plato, believed in â€Å"virtue of character and thought†, which means that virtue results from teaching, experience, and habits rather than Plato’s idealism notions of ideas and qualities (pg.265-266). He believed that peoples noble actions would lead to virtue and that all things in life had an end. That all ends must result in something good, an example would be an acorn, the end of an acorn would be an acorn tree. Aristotle believed that it was inevitable for humans to obtain happiness over a course of time and that this was the end for a human being. He believed that in order to be virtuous, one must first avoid temperance and deficiency. Aristotle also claims that justice can mean both lawfulness and fairness or injustice can mean unlawfulness and unfairness. His notion was that the law encouraged people to pursue virtue, therefore, the lawful person would result to being virtuous. In essence, he claims that people who pursue virtue will be just and those who do not pursue virtue will be unjust. He believed that sensory perceptions in the human soul are reflections of objects, and thoughts in consciousness are based on what we have already seen. Plato believed that the average person could not see the truth, therefore, the noble lie was essential to get people to pursue their natural form or task. A simple ascetic city with the notion of everyone having natural abilities to do a certain job was justice for Plato. In contrast, Aristotle, did not believe that humans had access to these perfect forms in their minds as a way to reach justice and the perfect city. He argues that justice is a complete virtue when exercising virtue in relation to others and that it requires intellectual virtue. That a virtuous person should pursue the most pleasant and happy life, which is the philosophical life of contemplation and speculation. The highest good for Aristotle is the end of a human, which is gained through virtuous action over their course of a life time. In order to live a life of virtue according to Aristotle, one must find the mean or good actions, which finding the mean is virtuous actions. By exercising virtue in relations to others is a good thing that will lead to a virtuous happy life and this will inevitably lead to an end of a human being, which is happiness. He was not a hedonist, his highest good reflected on reason, virtue, and experience that gains practical wisdom and that people learn from mistakes. This notion of a human gaining happiness by living a virtuous life reflects on his notion of a content society. Aristotle’s perception of justice was similar to Plato’s in the way that virtue related to both temperance and courage, but in all other aspects they were completely in contrast. Virtue consisted of habits and making right choices for the individual to be just, according to Aristotle. Virtue of temperance and courage causes people to be in a â€Å"good state† and to perform their â€Å"functions† well (pg. 269). Therefore, in order to acquire justice in Aristotle’s perception, virtue would have to take place within the individual’s state of character and reason for the whole in order to pursue virtue. Equality being about justice and exercising freedom was permissible according to Aristotle. He was really about diversity, but not a feminist, he clearly reduced the women’s roles in society, which was normal due to an era of sexism. There where three forms of happiness according to Aristotle- a life of pleasure and enjoyment, a life of free and responsibility, and a life as a thinker and philosopher. He rejected the imbalance of these premises and it was essential in human relationships. Therefore, finding the mean and his example of not to be cowardly or impulsive, but courageous. Aristotle believed in the mixture of constitutions, which means that if you mix â€Å"oligarchy† and â€Å"democracy†, which would be essentially â€Å"polity†; bringing a large middle class, then there can be more equality and justice among the citizens (pg. 403). He described democracy as a form of government that would overthrow the rich. Therefore, where the poor are predominant, there will be democracy. He’s implying that there is a better way; modern way to conduct a government where the people are not ruled by a monarch or tyranny. This means that if you rely on one type of constitution, then it would inevitably lead to depravity by changing into a bad constitution. An example would be if monarchy was established, then it would lead to tyranny or aristocracy to oligarchy. Aristotle’s notion was that in order to have equality, then a mixture of constitutions was necessary for justice. He he elaborates on constitutions, he is indicating the system of government that should be established. This relates to virtue because in order to be virtuous depravity must be impermissible and having a mixture of constitutions brings a balance to good. He advocates on having a massive middle class would be essential in order to have a balance of equality and fairness. He supports on having this large middle class because it will genuinely bring a balance in society and impact on politics according to Aristotle. The virtue of justice belongs to the city, a self-determination of what is just. He advocates on the art of acquisition; that wealth should have a limit. He does not seem to like people who are upset with moneymaking. He emphasized on that a democracy was essentially the worse type of government; just as a tyranny. If there is no large middle class, then democracy denounces to rule by the poor and Aristotle believed that it should be the rule of everyone or the many. Therefore, the mixture of democracy and oligarchy was essential to Aristotle for the sake of polity. Being a just person can lead to a life of virtue, which is acquired by noble actions and experience, in contrast with Plato’s ideology of perfect forms in the human mind being to abstract and delusional. However, Aristotle’s notion is to pursue a virtuous life by making right choices and learning from mistakes, which is very good because human beings are not perfect. Happiness would be considered the end of a human being and it’s acquired by virtue according to Aristotle and making choices on whether to be or not to be a just person. His perspective revolved around people living in communities or political communities and that politics was a characteristic for the well-being. He also incorporated public education being the means of a community and through the development of practical wisdom because he wanted people to learn from their mistakes, stating that there is no perfect idea of a society. When an individual acquired happiness, which was the highest good over their course of life, it was done by pursuing virtue and noble actions. Therefore, Aristotle’s theory involves a fair political view where there is a higher class, lower class, but more importantly, a massive middle class where everyone must participate in politics. In accordance to Aristotle’s and its success can be determined by the happiness of the citizens. Where each citizen has acquired the point of where they derive in moderation and are capable of distinguishing the means and the extremes and the good of society. He criticized Sparta on their austere culture and the citizen structure of a military society because he genuinely believed that it was not a content community. He did not lack humane values and he emphasized on how people should exercise virtue in relations to others. In essence, Aristotle’s theory offers a well established broad and fair view of a justice for a society and politics.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Dry Piston Vacuum Pump - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4346 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/09/23 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Commercializing the Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump © James A. Narus James C. Anderson * June 2003 * James A. Narus is Professor of Business Marketing, Babcock Graduate School of Management, Wake Forest University. James C. Anderson is the William L. Ford Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Wholesale Distribution, and Professor of Behavioral Science in Management, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University. He is also the Irwin Gross Distinguished ISBM Research Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Business Markets (ISBM), located at Penn State University, and Visiting Research Professor, School of Technology Management, University of Twente, the Netherlands. Please note that we prepared this case as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. We disguised all of the company names and some of the information on marketplace conditions. Send correspondence t o: James A. Narus Babcock Graduate School of Management Wake Forest University Suite 150, One Morrocroft Centre 6805 Morrison Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28226-3551 USA +1. 704. 365. 6717 (telephone) jim. [emailprotected] wfu. edu (e-mail)  © 2003, James C. Anderson and James A. Narus. All rights reserved. Commercializing the Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump Evan Stone, a senior product manager at Kunst Vacuum Pumps, was excited as he lifted the prototype of a dry piston vacuum pump out of its shipping carton. Management of Kunst’s new parent company, Atler GmbH, had decided to test its ability to penetrate new market segments within the United States (U. S. ). Whereas Atler marketed the 1600 under its own name as a platform product to the scientific laboratory and health care segments, Kunst would sell it as a derivative product in previously untapped application segments. The division’s vice president, Will Metz, had named Evan to head up a team charged with fin ding new segments for and then commercializing the 1600. Evan looked forward to the challenge. Success would bring recognition from Atler’s senior management. As he placed the steel gray device on his desk, Evan recited to Will all the product information he could recall. The Kunst 1600 Dry Piston Vacuum Pump is a fractional horsepower, injection-molded aluminum pump, with a pumping speed of 1. 6 cubic feet per minute (CFM). The pump weighs 16. 5 pounds. The Kunst 1600 is a reconfigured compressor outfitted with a screen over its input nozzle to catch contaminants. Because it is a compressor, the Kunst 1600 can run longer and cooler than conventional vacuum pumps. This enables the Kunst 1600 to function more efficiently at lower pressure levels than competing products. And, the fact that it is injection-molded means that it has fewer working parts than more traditional models. In contrast to conventional pumps, the Kunst 1600 is oil-free. Kunst will sell the 1600 to its ne twork of wholesalers for $400, with a suggested resale price of $500. † â€Å"Will, this product along with the Kunst reputation for precision, reliability, and durability will make us the ‘Mercedes? ’of vacuum pumps in the U. S. †, Evan confidently predicted. Yet before Evan could begin to market the Kunst 1600, he had to make some critical decisions. First, Evan had to identify and target high potential market segment(s). He planned to do so by determining in which segment(s) the Kunst 1600 stood to deliver the greatest value. Evan speculated that the residential air-conditioning (AC) repair segment would offer the best opportunity. Second, Evan had to develop a value proposition for the Kunst 1600 for each segment targeted. At this point, he wasn’t sure whether to stress the fact that the pump did not require oil changes or that it had a projected lifetime of 6 years. BACKGROUND Based in Minneapolis, Kunst Vacuum Pumps is the recently acquired U. S. Division of Atler GmbH. During the previous fiscal year, Kunst sales soared to a 75-year record of $120 million. The firm manufactures top-end (i. e. 6 or more CFM) vacuum pumps for use in highly demanding laboratory, health care, and industrial applications. For example, in the lab, engineers rely on Kunst pumps in freeze-drying, vacuum oven, and distillation processes. In high tech industries, operations personnel employ Kunst pumps in the production of cathode ray tubes and computer chips. From a technical standpoint, Kunst pumps provide a â€Å"deeper draw† (i. e. , they can evacuate chambers down to almost a perfect vacuum) and are more efficient at lower pressure levels than competing models. Scientists, engineers, and health care professionals highly regard the Kunst brand name. Not surprisingly, Kunst holds a 60% market share in laboratory, health care, and industrial applications. Kunst Vacuum Pumps’ parent firm, Atler GmbH, is headquartered in Frankf urt, Germany. Last year, Atler revenues exceeded â‚ ¬ 5 billion. Founded in 1875, Atler produces diversified lines of high-quality and high-precision measurement instruments, testing equipment, compressors, and monitoring devices for hospitals and scientific laboratories. The firm has a reputation in Europe for its scientific discovery prowess, its reliable and accurate products, and its competent technical service. Atler acquired Kunst the previous year in order to penetrate new segments in the U. S. market. Importantly, Atler management believed that Kunst product lines and market segments were complementary to their own (e. g. , compressors and pumps rely on similar technologies) and that Kunst shared Atler’s commitment to superior craftsmanship. As a test case, they requested that Kunst take a 1. 6 CFM compressor, reconfigure it as a vacuum pump, and market it under the Kunst brand name to previously untapped market segments. If this approach was successful, Atler w ould begin to transfer a broad range of products to Kunst for marketing. On the other hand, failure might cause Atler management to doubt the wisdom of the Kunst acquisition. Evan and Will saw this as a golden opportunity for Kunst to grow sales and profits by penetrating new market segments, such as AC and refrigerator repairs. As contrasted with existing Kunst segments, technicians used vacuum pumps in these applications to â€Å"dehydrate† a refrigerant system during repairs. Rather than â€Å"sucking out† moisture from coils, valves, and motors, a vacuum pump actually lowered the pressure of the system so that water particles would â€Å"boil off† and then be exhausted. The process had three major benefits. First, it eliminated water droplets that could freeze into ice crystals. The accumulation of ice retards the flow of refrigerants, ultimately slowing and stopping the cooling process. Second, moisture over time combines with refrigerants to form hyd rochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These acids quickly corrode copper coils, valves, and motors. Vacuuming vaporizes these acids. In a traditional vacuum pump, system oil traps the acids. When a technician changes the oil, he or she removes these acids. In an oil-free pump like the Kunst 1600, the acid vapors are directly exhausted into the atmosphere. Third, vacuuming indicates whether or not there is a leak in the system. If a technician cannot draw down the pressure of a system, then there is a high probability that there is a crack, often small in size, in a coil or valve. Cracked coils are perhaps the most common cause of AC and refrigeration system failure. In deciding what size of vacuum pump is needed for a given repair job, residential AC and refrigerator repair contractors adhere to an industry heuristic known as the Rule of Seven that links vacuum pump and refrigeration system capacities. The rule specifies that pump â€Å"CFM times seven† yields the maximum r efrigeration system capacity (in tons of air) on which a given vacuum pump should be used. In this way, the rule of seven provides rough demarcations for market segments. For example, experts recommend a 1-1. 5 CFM pump for home and light commercial refrigerator repairs (e. g. , small restaurants, bakeries, and ice cream shops). For residential AC repairs, technicians suggest a 3-4 CFM pump. In his preliminary investigations, though, Evan was unable to find any documented scientific support for the rule. Market research indicates that the annual U. S. sales potential for vacuum pumps in each of these market segments to be as follows: home refrigerator repairs (60,000 units), light commercial refrigerator repairs (40,000 units), and residential AC repairs (125,000 units). About 15 vacuum pump manufacturers actively pursue business in these segments. Most firms are small in size (i. e. , less than $50 million in annual sales) and limit their efforts to one or two market segments. I n recent years, several German and Japanese manufacturers have entered the U. S. arketplace. The leading producers of 1-6 CFM vacuum pumps include AirMaster, Pump Wizard, Toledo Pump and Valve, and Vacuum Technologies. Pictures of the Kunst 1600 and AirMaster vacuum pumps appear in Exhibit 1. Manufacturers use heating, ventilation and AC (HVAC) wholesalers to reach residential AC firms, and AC and refrigeration (AR) wholesalers to sell to refrigerator repair firms. MARKET RESEARCH STUDY In order to prepare for the introduction of the Kunst 1600 and acquaint himself with new applications segments, Evan decided to initiate a market research study. He began by summarizing his initial beliefs about the marketplace. Evan was certain that the research would validate them. †¢I feel confident that the residential AC repair market offers the greatest opportunity for the Kunst 1600. Annual sales have topped 125,000 units and are growing at 15% per year as the population expands, parti cularly to the â€Å"Sun Belt. † Furthermore, I predict that AC contractors stand to gain the greatest value from the Kunst 1600. †¢Although most residential AC contractors use anywhere from 3 to 6 CFM vacuum pumps for repairs, I believe that we can make a convincing argument for the Kunst 1600. Most AC system nozzles and vacuum pump hoses are one-quarter inch in diameter. At that diameter, â€Å"resistance† retards the vacuuming process to the point where a 1. 6 CFM pump takes about the same length of time to evacuate a system as does a 6 CFM pump. †¢The most important benefit that the Kunst 1600 provides in all potential market segments is that technicians will not have to change the oil! All vacuum pump manuals recommend that technicians change the oil after each repair job. Each oil change typically takes a quart. At $8 per quart for specialty oil, that can be quite costly on an annual basis. Furthermore, it takes a technician around 30 minutes to c hange the oil on a 3 CFM pump. Given that the typical AC repair technician is paid a rate of $30 per hour, the labor costs associated with changing oil must be staggering. †¢Changing oil is a messy nuisance for every technician. Each time a repair technician has to clean up this oily mess, he or she uses $. 50 worth of a solvent-based scouring soap and $. 15 of a specialized cloth-fiber based towel. †¢To protect the environment, most U. S. ities require proper disposal and recycling of all oil-based liquids. The average charge for recycling used oil is around $5 per gallon. †¢The Kunst 1600 is made from injection-molded aluminum. It won’t rust like vacuum pumps made of steel. Furthermore, the Kunst 1600 has far fewer internal parts than competitive models. I predict that the Kunst 1600 will take more physical abuse (e. g. , being tossed into trucks and getting rained on) and be far more durable than traditional vacuum pumps. Our research engineers tell me that it should last at least 6 years in the field. Because it is constructed from aluminum, the Kunst 1600 will weigh 5 to 10 pounds less than competing products. Technicians will appreciate the weight savings. †¢Potential customers will be willing to pay a price premium to obtain a vacuum pump with the Kunst brand name on it. In order to gain â€Å"hands on† experience in these markets, Evan decided to test his beliefs with an extensive research study. The study would feature a series of 2 focus groups with AC and refrigerator repair firm owners or managers and field in-depth interviews with several repair technicians in each of three cities. A private marketing research firm would run the focus groups in Philadelphia, Atlanta, and Los Angeles. Evan selected these cities to reflect differing regional repair environments across the U. S. In each of the focus groups, participants would get the opportunity to examine the Kunst 1600 prototype and product literature. Evan plan ned to spend a day with each repair technician making repair calls. On each job site, Evan would encourage the repair technician to run a â€Å"side-by-side† test of the Kunst 1600 and their own pump. If other segments emerged, Evan would repeat the process for each. RESEARCH FINDINGS When the research had been completed, Evan reviewed the major findings with division vice president, Will Metz. â€Å"Will, the most important thing that I discovered is that AC and refrigerator repair is an art that technicians practice rather than a science that engineers meticulously execute. Many repair technicians have never completed rigorous training programs and few states certify technicians. Personal opinions, preferences, and ‘rules of thumb’ dictate how repair work is completed. Let’s review the research findings. † Residential AC Repair Segment The size of the AC repair firms participating in the research study ranged from single owner-operators who worked out of the backs of their pick-up or panel trucks to operations that employed 25 technicians and maintain 15 trucks in the field. On average, participating firms had three trucks. Contractors assigned one vacuum pump per truck and kept one or two extra pumps back at the office in case of pump failure. All residential repair contractors owned vacuum pumps between 3 and 6 CFM in capacity. The 3 CFM models were the most popular. They reported that 3 CFM vacuum pumps sell for around $250 while 6 CFM pumps cost about $320. Participants estimated that a pump typically lasts 5 years. Participants report that AC repair work is highly seasonal, lasting for about 20 weeks between late April and early September. In the Southern U. S. the season is longer and in the Northern states shorter. The typical repair technician completes 10 jobs a day, 5 days a week, for an average of 1000 jobs per season. In the peak of the season, they may work seven days a week. Job revenue and completion time varies widely; however, the average revenue per job is $350 with a net profit before taxes of $70. The typical job takes about an hour to complete. Contractors pay repair technicians an average of $30 per hour. Because technicians had to carry the pumps to unusual locations at job sites, they felt that the lighter the pump the better. They stated that the typical 6 CFM pump weighed around 30 pounds and the typical 3 CFM pump 20 pounds. They thought it was great that the aluminum body of the Kunst 1600 made it lighter than competitive models, however, they wondered if the aluminum would make it more vulnerable to breakage. Others thought that the acids exhausted from the Kunst 1600 would accumulate causing the aluminum housing to corrode rapidly. Focus group and field interviews confirmed that a vacuum pump is used for around 30 minutes in the typical repair job. Technicians maintained pumping time is not â€Å"idle† time in that they use it to complete other repair tasks, load equipment on their trucks, write up customer invoices, and develop a personal relationship with the homeowner. Thus, reducing vacuuming time would not necessarily reduce total job time. Additionally, technicians stated that vacuum pumps rarely failed on the job and if they did, they would radio the office and a manager would drive another pump out to the job site. Lost time due to pump failure was seen as negligible. The focus groups and interviews revealed that owners and technicians were not concerned about vacuuming precision. In the words of one technician, â€Å"As long as the needle on the pressure gauge is close to zero, I feel that I’ve done a reasonable job. † They also asserted that even if a technician failed to draw pressure down to an acceptable level, that the AC system would probably work acceptably for a few more months if not the entire cooling season. When the system broke down again, no one would be able to link the failure to a poor vacuum pumping job. Evan was surprised to learn that most repair firm owners considered vacuum pumps to be â€Å"disposable operating supplies†. Many did not even keep track of pump purchases. As one owner put it, â€Å"At $250 apiece, a vacuum pump is equivalent to the revenue from one repair job. † Another operator put it this way. â€Å"If a pump lasts 5 years and my repair person uses it to complete 5000 jobs, then a 3 CFM vacuum pump costs me around $. 05 per job while a 6 CFM pump costs $. 06. Frankly, I’m more concerned about having to pay $30 per hour for labor. And, I can’t find enough trained repair persons at that wage to keep up with all the jobs I have coming in! † Discussion of oil changes yielded contradictory and confusing results. Owners and technicians alike agreed that vacuum pump instructions called for oil to be changed after every job. However, to a person they stated that changing oil that frequently was unnecessary and that in fact, no one ever did. Instead, they estimated that the average technician changed the oil once a week. Some technicians even claimed to change the oil only once a season. At this point, disagreements between owners and technicians surfaced. Owners contended that it was the responsibility of each technician to check his or her equipment out each day and make sure it was in good operating order. However, they emphatically stated that they would never pay someone $30 per hour to change the oil. Instead, owners felt that the technicians should do the work â€Å"on their own time†. If worse came to worse, owners said they would assign the task to a part-time, maintenance worker ($12. 00 per hour). The contractors agreed that $8 per quart of oil, $. 0 for scouring soap, and $. 15 for towels were reasonable estimates. Repair technicians saw changing the oil as a â€Å"dirty little job†. It took about 30 minutes to complete. Many felt that it was up to the owners to get the oil changed. As one technician put it, â€Å"I show up for work each day on time and do first rate work. It’s up to the owner to provide equipment and tools in good working order. They should have the oil changed for me. † Technicians said that when they did change the oil they used about one quart of oil for 3-6 CFM pumps. They agreed that they used plenty of soap and paper towels cleaning up the mess after an oil change. Most residential AC repair firms contracted with disposal firms to recycle oil. Importantly, the fact that the Kunst 1600 did not require oil and oil changes caught and sustained both owner and technician interest. That is, until either the focus group moderator or Evan informed them that the Kunst 1600 had a 1. 6 CFM rating. Citing the Rule of Seven for support, every participant stated that the Kunst 1600 was â€Å"too small† to handle residential AC repair jobs. The typical technician commented, â€Å"It would take me 2-3 hours to complete a job with a 1. 6 CFM pump. If I wanted to get done in a half hour, I would have to use 3-4 of them simultaneously. † When informed that the quarter inch nozzle on most AC systems would create resistance and equate the time it took a 1. 6 CFM and a 6 CFM pump to evacuate a system, none of the focus group participants were convinced. In the words of one contractor, â€Å"This runs counter to my 25 years of experience, not to mention the Rule of Seven. No one in the industry will believe you. To Evan’s further disappointment, the side-by-side tests of his resistance theory proved to be inconclusive. Study respondents identified Pump Wizard as the top brand in the industry for over 40 years. They volunteered the fact that Pump Wizard had designed its vacuum pumps exclusively for the residential AC repair marketplace. No one expressed any dissatisfaction with any aspect of Pump Wizard vacuum pumps. Participants said that AirMaster and Vacuum Technologies currently offered competitive models of equal quality. All three firms priced their 3 CFM pumps at around $250 and their 6 CFM pumps at $320. When the moderator or Evan showed study participants the prototype of the Kunst 1600, they universally stated, â€Å"Why this doesn’t look like a vacuum pump at all. † In fact, most competing models resembled hand-held vacuum cleaners that most families had around the house. And, when asked what their overall opinion of the Kunst brand was, the vast majority of respondents said that they had never heard of the name. Participants overwhelmingly concluded, â€Å"This pump would be better suited for home and light commercial refrigerator repairs. † Home and Light Commercial Refrigerator Repair Segments Following up on the residential AC participants’ suggestion, Evan repeated the market research procedure for the home and light commercial repair segments. He gathered the following information. An individual owner -operator runs the typical home or light commercial refrigerator repair firm, working out of the back of a pick-up or panel truck. Firms tend to specialize in either home or light commercial repairs. Larger firms that do contract work for appliance retailer chains may have up to 15 repair technicians working for them. A refrigerator repair technician uses a 1 to 1. 5 CFM vacuum pump. Participants in the study thought that a 1 to 1. 5 CFM pump might have a five-year lifetime. On home refrigerator jobs, technicians typically use a 1 CFM vacuum pump for around 15 minutes. Participants did not see any benefit to reducing this meager amount of vacuuming time. Home repairs generate an average of $90 in revenue, with a net profit before taxes of $10. The typical technician completes 7 jobs a day. Work is spread out evenly across the year. Repair firms pay technicians about $15 per hour. Light commercial work might entail fixing a refrigerated dessert carousel at a restaurant or a ref rigerated display case at a bakery or ice cream shop. Each job brings in an average of $200 in revenue, with a net profit before taxes of $30. Technicians do about 5 jobs per day and receive $24 per hour in wages. Light commercial work occurs throughout the year; however, emergency repairs skyrocket during the summer and there are often more jobs available than a given repair firm can handle. A light commercial refrigerator-repair technician typically uses a 1. CFM vacuum pump for 30 minutes. Repair firm owners consider this to be â€Å"idle time† as there are fewer tasks to perform in refrigerator repairs and technicians must complete them sequentially. In this application, Evan’s side-by-side tests revealed an unexpected finding. The Kunst 1600’s ability to work more efficiently at lower pressure levels enabled technicians to reduce vacuuming time by 10 minutes on the typical job. During the 12 hectic weeks of summer, technicians would be able to convert the t ime saved into revenue by completing at least two more jobs per week. Home and light commercial refrigerator-repair technicians change the oil on their vacuum pumps typically once a month. They use one pint or $4 of oil per change. As most of these firms are owner-operated out of the back of a pick-up or panel truck, they find changing oil to be an annoyance. On average it takes a technician 30 minutes to change the oil on a 1 to 1. 5 CFM pump. Technicians change the oil during working hours between jobs. Participants found the $. 50 cost of scouring soap and $. 15 of towels per clean-up to be reasonable estimates. Due to their small size, refrigerator repair firms rarely contract with oil disposal firms and are more likely to pay the $5 per gallon disposal charge at municipal recycling centers. Allegedly, refrigerator repair technicians are more likely to â€Å"toss used oil in deserted dumpsters† than counterparts in other segments. Evan noted that the fines for dumpi ng a gallon of oil average around $150 for the individual plus $2000 for his or her company. According to an environmental action committee study, only about 10% of these violators are caught and successfully prosecuted. Respondents named AirMaster as the number one brand of 1 to 1. 5 CFM pumps. An AirMaster 1 CFM pump costs $150 and weighs 10 pounds and a 1. 5 CFM pump $200 and 15 pounds. None of the refrigerator owners or technicians was familiar with the Kunst brand. Resolving an Inconsistency in the Findings Evan was perplexed by one major inconsistency in market research findings. If respondent predictions of vacuum pump lifetimes were correct, annual sales of vacuum pumps would never be so high. To resolve this discrepancy, Evan interviewed 9 managers from HVAC and AR wholesalers that market vacuum pumps. According to wholesaler managers, most repair firms do not keep track of their vacuum pump purchases and overestimate pump lifetime. On the other hand, wholesaler manag ers claimed that they meticulously tracked customer firm purchases via their electronic point-of-sale systems. They stated that with â€Å"reasonable care† and frequent oil changes a 3-6 CFM vacuum pump used in residential AC repair work might last an average of 2. 5 years. A 1 CFM pump used in home refrigerator repair lasts about 3 years. And, a 1. CFM vacuum pump employed in light commercial refrigerator repairs lasts about 2 years. However, as one wholesaler manager sagely observed, â€Å"Many repair technicians do not take good care of their pumps and change the oil as often as they should. Acid build up corrodes internal parts and physical abuse causes the pumps to fail prematurely. But hey, that’s fine with me – I get to sell more pumps! † CONCLUSION â€Å"Those are the major findings, Will,† Evan said. â€Å"The market research certainly hasn’t supported my initial beliefs, yet there still may be an opportunity for the Kunst 1600. Given what we know now, what segment(s) do you think we should target? † As for devising a value proposition, Evan thought that one contractor’s comment summed up the challenge, â€Å"If you can’t show me how your vacuum pump is going to increase the number of jobs I can do per week or cut my operating costs, I don’t want to hear about it! † As he stared at the minimalist painting of a windmill on his office wall, Evan wondered how he could best convey the superior value of the Kunst 1600 to targeted prospective customers. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What are the major, quantifiable value and price elements associated with the Kunst 1600? 2. What additional value placeholders, elements not presently quantified, merit consideration in your value model? 3. Construct a customer value model for the Kunst 1600 in the residential AC, home refrigerator, and light commercial refrigerator repair market segments. 4. Using your value model, select a target mar ket segment(s) for commercialization efforts. Justify your choice. 5. Write a value proposition for the Kunst 1600 for the target market(s). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dry Piston Vacuum Pump" essay for you Create order

Monday, December 30, 2019

he French Recent Past Passé Récent

The French recent past is a verb construction thats used to express something that just happened.  It is called the  passà © rà ©cent. Avoid the temptation to omit the accents; without them, the phrase wont read properly. Remembrance of Things Past Like the futur proche, or near future, in French, the recent past tense, or passà © rà ©cent,  expresses the fluidity of time. There is the composed past, or passe composà ©, a specific action that was begun and completed in the past, such as: Je suis allà © en France.   I went to France. In French, you can also use the precise imperfect, or limparfait, which describes repeated actions, an ongoing action, or a state of being in the past with no specified conclusion, such as: Jallais en France. I was going to France. Then, there is the passà © rà ©cent, which is something specific that just happened, or something that happened even closer to the present than the passe composà ©, such as: Je viens de manger. I just ate. Understanding when and how to use the various options for the past tense is vital for those studying French. Forming the Recent Past Create a verb in the recent past, or passà © rà ©cent, by combining the present tense of venir (to come) with the preposition de  and the action verbs infinitive,  a single word  that  is the basic, unconjugated form of the verb.   This makes  the  passà © rà ©cent  one of the easiest tenses to construct in the French language, and, as such, difficult to get wrong. That said, it does require the user to correctly spell the present tense of  venir. The Present Tense of "Venir" To be able to use a verb  such as  venir  in the recent past, its vital to first learn how to conjugate it in the present. Since  venir  starts with a v, there is no elision. Note, however, that the present indicative (je viens) rhymes with  bien, whereas the simple past (je vins) rhymes with vin (actually, its pronounced exactly the same way). Je  viens   I comeTu  viens You comeIl  vient He comesNous  venons We comeVous  venez You (plural) comeIls  viennent They come Using"Venir" in the Recent Past To use venir  in the simple past, combine the present tense of  the verb with de and an infinitive, as these examples show:   Je viens de voir Luc.   I just saw Luc.  Il vient darriver.   He just arrived.  Nous venons de prà ©parer le repas.   We just prepared the meal. Remember that knowing how to use  the  passà © rà ©cent  of verbs such as venir is quite  useful, but it can apply only to things you have  just  done. The "Passà © Composà ©" Dont confuse  passà © rà ©cent with  passà © composà ©, the compound past.​  The  passà © composà ©Ã‚  is the most common French past tense, often used in conjunction with the  imperfect. It corresponds most closely in English with the simple  past.  Examples of the  passà © composà ©Ã‚  would be: As-tu  Ãƒ ©tudià ©Ã‚  ce  weekend?   Did you study this weekend?​Ils  ont  dà ©jà   mangà ©.   They have already eaten. As noted, these are actions that were begun and completed in the past.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

High School Vs. College - 853 Words

There is a big difference between high school and college from having bells to a no dress policy. For high school students, they are obligated to go, and if they don’t attend then the government comes into play. As for college, it s a choice to go back to school. Students in college have variety of classes to choose from and freedom,etc. This could be freedom from parents or just doing whatever you want without parents barking at you, because you are now an adult. Even though I have been in college for only a semester, I would say that I enjoy college more than high school due to personal reason,and to pros and cons, of the different schools. In high school I have regrets for not particating in many of my high school activities. For example, sports , there were basic sports at my school that I knew they had; which was basketball,soccer,footballs, etc. There were even sport activities that I didn’t know we had, I can’t remember the name, I think it was long jump. But, even though the sports I knew we had , I did not know how to sign up to participate in it. I felt like I wasn’t exposed enough to these events in high school for people to show me. When it was my senior year I wanted to try out the sports but I felt so discouraged because I would be starting from square one as for my school mates they could have done it in middle school as for me I did nothing. I don’t blame staff and peers for not exposing me the activities, but of course there are other factors that came intoShow MoreRelatedCollege Vs. High School858 Words   |  4 PagesCollege Vs. High School Some may think that high school and college reading and writing are similar and that it’s just the next level up but it s not, they differentiate in many ways. College reading and writing is more than that, it’s a completely different world when compared to high school. It’s much more advanced and complexed. Some ideas that can be compared are the way we annotate, understand text, assignment topics, the depth of research, and so on. This is important to understanding howRead MoreHigh School Vs. College873 Words   |  4 PagesHigh School Vs. College The transition from high school to college is not only an exciting challenge, but also a great milestone in one’s life. High school and college both share the common goal of expanding students’ knowledge; however, there are many differences between high school and college. They are similar in such ways that you still have to go to class, do class work, take test, and study hard. They differ because in college one is taking on an entire new load of responsibility and optionsRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1149 Words   |  5 PagesProfessor Grunow Writing 1010 October 26, 2015 High School vs. College Graduating from high school is what every student is looking forward to. However, going to college is a big accomplishment for all students. The first day of freshman high school and college feels the same, the excitement and pressured. As many students experienced, both high school and college could be compared their similarities. First, both students in college and high school are expected to behave in well mannered, attendRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1217 Words   |  5 PagesHigh School vs. College In the America, children begin school around the age of six. Once a student enters elementary school, most stay there for five to six years before they go on to secondary school, which involves middle school and high school. After graduating high school some students go on to pursue a â€Å"higher education† through college, but any further schooling after high school is no longer mandatory. In the professional world it is becoming harder and harder for high school students toRead MoreCollege Vs. High School938 Words   |  4 PagesWelcome to college! Congratulations on making it this far! Now the time comes to ramp up the ante! No such program as stepping up to college exists as it does for for high school. Oh wait! It’s called high school. Move it or lose it now, your future rests on your shoulders. High school teachers just handed you your future based on the way you schooled, and college professors tell you to figure it out. College trips up hundreds of st udents a year, refrain from letting yourself become one ofRead MoreHigh School Vs. College923 Words   |  4 PagesEng. 110-48 31 August 2015 High School Vs. College High school and college are both higher education institutions that enlighten students; however, there are many differences between the two that make them both unique. In high school, the goal is to gain a broad understanding of numerous subjects so that when they arrive to college, they have an understanding of their interests, goals, dreams, and what it takes to pursue their potential career. High school works as a place for students toRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1236 Words   |  5 Pages201    High school vs. College Having a great education is the best legacy in life. It is a proven fact. This accomplishment requires moving on from high school, as well as from college. Moving from high school to college might be an energizing change, yet it is additionally an exceptionally troublesome one. It is a test that the understudy will battle with and in the end change in accordance with after some time. Despite the fact that there are numerous contrasts between high school and college, oneRead MoreHigh School Vs. College965 Words   |  4 PagesHigh School vs. College In the American schooling system, children begin primary school around the age of six, this is called elementary school and most students stay there for five to six years before they go on to secondary school which involves middle school and high school. After graduating high school some students may go on to â€Å"higher education† known as college, but any schooling done after high school is no longer mandatory. In high school there is a certain structure that has to beRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1294 Words   |  6 PagesHigh School Versus College Schools are undoubtedly important to one’s education. The most important of those schools are high schools and colleges because they have the most impact on deciding what occupation a student wants to pursue. Although high schools and colleges share similarities in providing education, there are also many differences between each other. In both high schools and colleges there are teachers that educate students on certain subjects. Those subjects can range from mathematicsRead MoreHigh School Vs. College1434 Words   |  6 Pagespeople believe that transitioning from a High School environment to a College environment is arduous, others believe it is effortless. High School and College both require teachers and work, but they both have differences that many people are not aware of. People will say that college and High School are similar because they both require effort for one to pass, but what they do not realize is the amount of effort which is necessary for each. With High School, teachers give students busy work that will

Friday, December 13, 2019

Discussing Music Therapy Reducing Stress Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

The treatment brings the right study to cloture. Discussion subdivision makes sense of research consequences. This is the most of import subdivision of any research study working adult females emphasis has emerged as important mental wellness job in working country in now. We will write a custom essay sample on Discussing Music Therapy Reducing Stress Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The chief purpose of the survey was to measure the effectivity of music therapy in decrease of emphasis among working adult females at P.S.G institute of wellness scientific disciplines, coimbatore in the month of July. Each person ‘s base line informations was collected and they were assessed for selected parametric quantities under the subheading of physical emphasis, psychological emphasis, fiscal emphasis, sociological emphasis, religious emphasis. After the initial appraisal, music therapy was given a period of 3 hebdomads. Then reappraisal was done. 5.1 General Profile of Working Womans: Age of working adult females varied between 20 to 60 old ages. There were 44 adult females, among whom bulk ( 16 ) of the adult females were in age group of 25 to 30 old ages. Six ( 6 ) were in the age group of 20 to 25 old ages. Thirteen ( 13 ) were in the age group o 30 to 35 old ages, six ( 6 ) were in the age group of 40 to 45 old ages and merely one in the age group of 50 to 60years.The above determination was supported by a survey conducted to measure the relationship between the emphasis and wellness indexs in urban population in Japan. They found that topic who showed that a high sum emphasis mark was largest in the age group of 30 to 39 old ages for adult females ( Nakagawa y, 1998 ) . 5.2 Occupational History of Working Womans: In the present survey bulk ( 33 ) of adult females were making instruction, one ( 1 ) was making administrative work, two ( 2 ) were making lab work, five ( 5 ) were hearer, three ( 3 ) were clerical workers. A survey reported that three groups of adult females like clerical worker, director, individual parent ( chiefly divorced ) have been through empirical observation identified as being at comparatively high hazard for emphasis ( kushnirt,1993 ) . 5.3 History of wellness Problem of Working Womans: In the present survey one ( 3 ) adult females had hurting in lower appendages, two ( 2 ) adult females had stomachic ulcer, one ( 1 ) adult females had Diabetess and high blood pressure, one ( 1 ) adult females had thyroid related job, one ( 1 ) had high blood pressure. Majority ( 36 ) of adult females did non hold any wellness jobs. A survey was conducted on multiple functions and wellness among Korean adult females.The consequence showed that holding multiple functions with working adult females was non associated with better wellness and psychological well-being. Compared to those with traditional function, employed adult females more often experienced sensed emphasis, with matrimonial and/or parental functions. ( Cho, S, J. , 2008 ) 5.4 Recreational Activities of Working Womans: About more than half of ( 23 ) adult females had no leisure clip activities and eight ( 8 ) adult females had a leisure clip activity of watching Television. Four ( 4 ) adult females had a leisure clip activity of Listening to music, three ( 3 ) adult females used to play during the leisure clip, one ( 1 ) adult female used to playing with the childs, one ( 1 ) adult female exhausted clip in walking, two ( 2 ) adult females used to read books and listen to music ; one ( 1 ) adult female had leisure clip activities of watching Television, read books, playing with childs and one ( 1 ) adult female had leisure clip activities of watching Television, orienting, cleansing and horticulture ( Table 4.4 ) .A survey has been conducted to find the occupation emphasis among primary school instructors in South- West, Nigeria. They found that bulk of the instructors had concern as symptom of hapless wellness and bulk of them engaged in watching Telev ision as a scheme for get bying with emphasis. ( Lanre Olaitan, O, 2009 ) 5.5 Assessment of Level and Type of Stress among Working Womans: In pretest out of 44working adult females 6 had mild degree of emphasis, 29 had moderate degree of emphasis and 9 of them had terrible degree of emphasis. A survey reported that among 206 adult females, 36 % admitted agony really terrible, terrible or reasonably terrible emphasis at work. At place or in the household 16 % were affected. Anxiety about employment was expressed by 12 % , fiscal concerns by 5 % , and concern for wellness by 5 % ( Biener, K. , 1981 ) . In relation to physical emphasis, among 44 working adult females 9 had mild degree of emphasis, 26 had moderate degree of emphasis, 9 had terrible degree of emphasis. Similarly psychological emphasis, five ( 5 ) had mild degree of emphasis and 30 one ( 31 ) had moderate degree of emphasis and eight ( 8 ) were identified as holding terrible degree of psychological emphasis. Five ( 5 ) of adult females had mild degree of emphasis, 30 six ( 36 ) had moderate degree of emphasis and three ( 3 ) had terrible degree of fiscal emphasis. Similarly seven ( 7 ) had mild degree of emphasis, 30 ( 30 ) had moderate degree of emphasis, seven ( 7 ) had terrible degree of sociological emphasis. Nine ( 9 ) of adult females had mild degree of emphasis, 20 six ( 26 ) had moderate degree of emphasis, nine ( 9 ) had terrible degree of religious emphasis. When a individual is stressed, their organic structure becomes physically different due to the reaction to the stressors. They may be dying and problem c oncentrating along with a alteration in outward behaviour. If dying, an person may see apprehensiveness, apprehension or uneasiness similar to fear but based on an ill-defined menace. This person may experience tense, uneasy, discerning, disquieted and vulnerable ( Dennis Coon, 2007 ) . 5.6 Comparison of Level of Stress among Working Women before and After Implementation of Music Therapy: Working adult females ‘s emphasis degree was reduced from terrible to chair and chair to mild. In the posttest, average value of mild emphasis is 66.33, compared to intend value of mild emphasis which is 62.66 in pretest. Similarly in the station trial, average value of moderate emphasis is73.44, compared to intend value of moderate emphasis which is 89.86 in pretest. Similarly in the station trial, average value of sever emphasis is 83.88, compared to intend value of sever emphasis which is120 in pretest after execution of music therapy. 5.7 Influence of Music Therapy on Stress Level among Working Womans: System theoretical account was adopted to implement the music therapy in decrease of emphasis among working adult females. After the music therapy working adult females stress degree was reduced to severe to chair and chair to mild. There was a important decrease in the emphasis degree when compared to emphasize degree before the therapy. The average value of mild emphasis was 62.33 in out put as compared to 62.66 in input and average value of moderate emphasis was 73.45 in out put as compared to 89.86 in input. Similarly the average value of terrible emphasis was 83.88 in out put as compared to 120 in input, Therapy as throughput helped the working adult females to cut down the emphasis degree ( figure 5.1 ) . 5.8 Assessment of Relaxation Level among Working Womans: All 40 ( 44 ) working adult females had moderate degree of relaxation after the music therapy. How to cite Discussing Music Therapy Reducing Stress Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Independence Audit and Audit Engagements

Question: Discuss about the Independence Audit and Audit Engagements. Answer: Introduction Audit and ethics are closely related to each other. It is very important for an auditor to maintain the professional ethics and skepticism. People rely upon the financial statements audited by auditors and they make all their investment decision based on those statements. Thus, it becomes very important that the auditor should be independent while giving views on the financial statements of the clients. Only then, the views given by auditor would be beneficial for the general public, as it will not be affected by any hidden interest to purposely manipulate the financial statements. Here, we will deal will certain situations faced by Fellowes and Associates that imposes threat on its independency (Wahab, Zain Rahman, 2015). Audit Engagement Audit Engagement deals with the audit of financial report for a financial year or for a half year, according to the guidelines of the Corporations Act, 2001; and audit of financial report for any other purpose (Blay et al., 2014). An auditor should accept the audit engagement only after agreeing to the basis under which audit is required to be executed. The terms of audit engagement must be clear between the management or those charged with governance (TCWG) and and the auditor (AAUSB Pronouncements, 2016). Auditors Independence The independency of auditor is an essential aspect for an audit engagement as it is meant for the public interest. The auditors independence comprises of the following (CAANZ. Kemp, 2016): Conceptual Frameworks for the Auditors The auditors should adopt the conceptual framework methodology to ensure the independency (AAUSB Pronouncements, 2016). Identify the various threats to the independence of auditors. Analyze the magnitude of all the identified threats. Apply the safety measure to eradicate the risk or lower it within acceptable limits. Significant Threats for the Auditors One of the most significant threats for auditors is having any self-interest in the audit client. The self-interest is created due to having some financial interest in the audit client. In case of Fellowes and Associates, two conditions are highlighted. One of the member (accountant) who intends to be the part of 2014 audit team own share in HCHG, which is the holding company of TCCL. The interest of accountant is immaterial to him. Fellowes and Associates valued the intellectual property of HCHG, which includes intangible assets valuing $30 million in the Consolidated Balance sheet. The value of intangible assets is material for HCHG. These two conditions focus mainly on: holding the financial interest in the audit client (TCCL) directly or indirectly, and whether such interest is materialistic. The threats that are imposed by these two conditions are discussed below: The financial interest arises when the member of audit team or his immediate family or a firm has a direct control or indirect materialistic control (DeFond Zhang, 2014). Here the main points to be considered are that the effect should be direct or if it is indirect, it should be material. However, in case of first situation where the accountant has owned shares of HCHG, it will not have any threat on the firm because the accountant owns the share of holding company thus it is an indirect interest. As given, the effect is not materialistic. Therefore, the overall impact of this situation cannot be risky for Fellowes and Associates. Further, as per Section 290.112 of APES 110 (2008), if the member has interest in the entity in which even the audit client has interest, such an interest will be significant only if it is materialistic. Providing the valuation services to audit client will give arise to threat of self-review. The threat depends on the materiality of effect of such valuation, the reliability of data on which such valuation is based, interference of the client in such valuation and the extent of disclosure regarding it in the financial statement. In this case, the audit firm has performed the valuation service in HCHG, which has significant material effect in the consolidated balance sheet. Thus, it will have a threat on the firms independency while performing the audit of TCCL. Actions to Prevent Potential Threats The last part of the conceptual framework is to take steps that will eliminate the potential threats. As discussed above there are two main threats that could arise (Tam, Zwar Markham, 2013): threat of self-interest and threat of self-review. The actions to prevent the risks are listed below: Self-interest threat: Though there is very less probability of this risk as the interest in not material, however, if the other members still feel that there is possibility of the risk the following step can be taken: Reduce the amount of investment in the shares by an amount that the treat ceases to exist or decreases to acceptable level Eliminate the member having such interest from the audit team. Self-review threat: following steps can be taken to reduce the threat: Including a member in team of audit did not take part of the valuation of intangible assets. Arrangements should be made in such a way that person involving in the valuation service does not take part in the audit engagement. By following these steps, the potential threats could be reduced to acceptable level. Conclusion This report brings into light various potential threats that are faced by Fellowes and Associates and elaborates the steps taken to overcome them or eliminate them up to acceptable level. The independency of auditor is the most crucial phenomenon and it cannot be compromised ("New auditors, but same risk", 2016). It is essential for every auditor to follow the conceptual framework as discussed in the report above before taking up any audit engagement. The auditor will be liable for violating the professional ethics if it is discovered that the auditor is dependent. Thus, Fellows and Associates must follow the conceptual framework even in future to reduce such risk of potential threats. References AUASB - Pronouncements. (2016). Retrieved 26 December 2016, from Blay, A. D., Notbohm, M., Schelleman, C., Valencia, A. (2014). Audit quality effects of an individual audit engagement partner signature mandate.International Journal of Auditing,18(3), 172-192. CAANZ., Kemp, S. (2016). Auditing, assurance and ethics handbook 2016 Australia (1st ed.). Milton, Qld: Wiley. Compiled, A. P. E. S. 110 Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. (2008, February).Accounting Professional and Ethical Standards Board. DeFond, M., Zhang, J. (2014). A review of archival auditing research.Journal of Accounting and Economics,58(2), 275-326. New auditors, but same risk. (2016). tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 26 December 2016, from Tam, C. W. M., Zwar, N., Markham, R. (2013). Australian general practitioner perceptions of the detection and screening of at-risk drinking, and the role of the AUDIT-C: a qualitative study.BMC family practice,14(1), 1. Wahab, E. A. A., Zain, M. M., Rahman, R. A. (2015). Political connections: a threat to auditor independence?.Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies,5(2), 222.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Treatment for Depression a Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Social Support on Depression free essay sample

Social support can be defined as: â€Å"information leading the subject to believe that he is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations† (Cobb, 1976, p. 1). It is useful to note that there are many diverse types of social support that can be both beneficial and/or detrimental to the recovery from depression (Arditte amp; Joorman, 2011; Blais amp; Renshaw, 2012; Dolokin, Panzarella, Fernandez, Alloy, amp; Cascardi, 2004; Grav, Hellzen, amp; Romild, 2011; Marroquin, 2011). This essay will cover the topics of the benefits of social support on depression, and how one goes about seeking and receiving ocial support. It will also discuss the role of gender in social support, and finally it will talk about some different types of social support that can be used. There is overwhelming amounts of research that substantiate the fact that social support helps to ameliorate depression. Having a clear support structure significantly reduces depressive ep isodes, and decreases the chance of having depression re-occur (Lin, Ye amp; Ensel, 1999). We will write a custom essay sample on Treatment for Depression: a Critical Evaluation of the Effects of Social Support on Depression or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Lin, Ye and Ensel discussed certain steps a person can take to help gain adequate social support, such as joining a community project, or helping in volunteer work. Participating in events that involve being around others enhances a feeling of belongingness. Which they express in their research can facilitate the creation of binding relationships with others, thus helping to create a practical social support network. Their study also found a correlation between people who had intimate relationships with others, and a decrease in depressive moods. They also note the relationship between the amount of contact, or support a depressed person receives per week has a dramatic effect in reducing their symptoms. It is interesting to note that persons who have a greater perception of social support feel less depressive symptoms over time, whereas people thinking they are lacking adequate social support state an increase in depressive symptoms (Lin, Ye amp; Ensel, 1999; Cohen amp; Wills, 1985; Gladstone, Parker, Malhi amp; Wilhelm, 2007). The need for social support varies significantly across genders (Cheng, 1999). For instance, Cheng notes that men report to having a lower need for support than woman. Her study found that males reported to being more self-reliant and independent, and thus wanting to solve the problems they are facing alone. This could potentially explain the reason that they need less social support than woman. Her study found that people with more feminine characteristics report a decrease in depressive moods when they receive more social support. In addition to looking at the quantity in which males and females wish to receive social support, it would be beneficial to understand the two types of social support that is applicable to gender. Firstly, emotional support, which can consist of hugging, pats on the back, listening, and empathising (Grav, Hellzen amp; Romild, 2011). The second form of social support that Grav, Hellzen and Romild investigated was tangible support, which can include: helping the depressed person with their physical responsibilities, cooking a meal, buying groceries, brainstorming and help with problem solving. Woman who suffer from depression reported needing more emotional support to help overcome their depression, whereas men identify with needing more tangible support (Grav, Hellzen amp; Romild, 2011). Another specific type of social support which has been studied recently is Adaptive Inferential Feedback (AIF) as found in a study conducted by Dobkin, Panzarella, Fernandez, Alloy and Cascardi (2004). This information was further supported by Panzarella, Alloy and Whitehouse (2006). Both studies explain that adaptive inferential feedback involves giving positive feedback to a depressed person regarding their stressful life event to help them avoid depressive thinking. Panzarella et al. (2004) states that helping the person curve their thinking in a positive direction helps buffer the affects of the depression. To put it simply, the supporter is giving positive praise for things the person did well, while not focusing on any negative aspects. It could be argued that this method employs a tendency to trivialize problems and that by only focusing on the positives, the negative aspects of the persons life will not be appropriately dealt with leading to greater problems further down the road. For this reason it may be best to use this type of support in tandem with the method outlined below. The use of another specific type of social support that can be used when a person with depression does not have an adequate support network at their disposal is Emotion Regulation   (Arditte amp; Joorman, 2011). Arditte and Joorman investigated the impact of emotion regulation strategies on depression. In their research, they focused their study on different subtypes of emotion regulation which could be beneficial to ameliorating depression. Their research found that cognitive reappraisal and ruminative reflection could be used as helpful tool when battling depression. They explain that cognitive reappraisal is a tool whereby a person would re-interpret a stressful life event in a way that softens its psychological impact from a negative way to a more positive way. For example, if a person suffering from depression is informed that their partner wants to leave the relationship, they could use cognitive reappraisal and think about the situation in a more positive way, â€Å"I will find someone who is going to be better for me anyway. †Ã‚   Arditte amp; Joorman (2011) go on to explain that reflection can be used as a positive or negative emotion regulation trategy. They found that when a person reflects inwards at one’s self, focusing on positive aspects, that would be considered ruminative reflection, which is a key strategy in reducing depression. However, if the depressed person is focusing on the negative aspects, that is considered ruminative brooding; this type of emotion regulation will be detrimental to recovery from depression. With this data collected, we have more of an understanding about how social support helps to ameliorate depression and are able to conclude that social support is a helpful tool in conquering depression. Specific determining factors, with regards to types of support, who, and when support is received can be found to be instrumental in accounting for it’s effects (Grav, Hellzen amp; Romild, 2011). While depression is no doubt a complex phenomena, and it can be argued that social support alone will not be able to concur the issue, but when used in conjunction with other treatment methods, it is certainly an invaluable tool. References: Arditte, K. A. , Joorman, J. (2011). Emotion regulation in depression: Re? ection predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 356-543. Blais, R. K. , Renshaw, K. D. (2012). The association of biological and psychological attributions for depression with social support seeking intentions in individuals with depressive symptoms. Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, 40, 605-617. Cheng, C. (1999). Gender-role differences in susceptibility to the influence of support availability on depression. Journal of Personality, 67(3), 439-467. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(4), 300-314. Cohen, S. Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357. Dobkin, R. D. , Panzarella, C. , Fernandez, J. , Alloy, L. B. , amp; Cascardi, M. (2004). Adaptive inferential feedback, depressonogenic inferences, and depressed mood: A labratory study of the expanded hopelessness theory of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(4), 487-509. Gladstone, G. L. , Parker, G. B. , Malh i, G. S. , Wilhelm, K. A. (2007). Feeling unsupported? An investigation of depressed patients perceptions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 103, 147-157. Grav, S. , Hellzen, O. , Romild, U. (2011). Association between social support and depression in the general population: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 111-120. Lin, N. , Ye, X. , amp; Ensel, W. M. (1999). Social support and depressed mood: A structural analysis. Jounal of Health and Social Behavior, 40(4), 344-359. Marroquin, B. (2011). Interpersonal emotion regulation as a mechanism for social support in depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1276-1290. Panzarella, C. , Alloy, L. B. , Whitehouse, W. G. (2006). Expanded hopelessness theory of depression: On the mechanisms by which social support protects against depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 307-333. Strange, J. P. , Boccia, A. S. , Shapero, B. G. , Molz, A. R. , Flynn, M. , Matt, L. M. , Alloy, L. B. (2013). Emotion regulation characteristics and cognitive vulnerabilities interact to predict depressive symptoms in individuals at risk for bipolar disorder: A prospective behavioural high-risk study. Cognition and Emotion, 27(1), 63-84.